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經濟學人:各國央行推出數字貨幣,中國成領跑者(1)

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Digital currencies

數字貨幣

Token gestures

代幣行動

Bitcoin grabs the headlines, but the real action is at central banks

比特幣常常占據新聞頭條,但真正的進展發生在各國央行

Anyone who bought bitcoin a year ago must feel vindicated—and rich. The price of the cryptocurrency crossed $50,000 for the first time on February 16th, a five-fold increase over the past year. Wall Street grandees including BlackRock, Bank of New York Mellon and Morgan Stanley are mulling holding some for clients. Last week Tesla, an electric-car maker, said it had bought $1.5bn-worth of bitcoin and would accept it as payment for its cars.

一年前買了比特幣的人一定覺得自己揚眉吐氣而且很富有。這種加密貨幣的價格在2月16日首次突破5萬美元,過去一年里漲了五倍。包括貝萊德、紐約梅隆銀行和摩根士丹利在內的華爾街巨頭正在考慮為客戶持倉。上個月,電動汽車制造商特斯拉表示已購買了價值15億美元的比特幣,并將接受用比特幣購買它家的汽車。

Investors' interest in bitcoin as an asset may be rising, but the inefficiencies and transaction costs associated with its use make it unlikely ever to be a viable currency. Here the action has been within central banks. As consumers have shifted away from using physical cash, and private companies—such as Facebook—have expressed an interest in launching their own tokens, many central banks have begun planning to issue their own digital currencies. The Bank for International Settlements, a club of central banks, last month said it expects one-fifth of the world's population will have access to a central-bank digital currency (CBDC) by 2024.

投資者把比特幣當作一種資產的興趣可能日漸濃厚,但比特幣使用時的低效和交易成本問題讓它不可能成為一種切實可用的流通貨幣。央行內一直在開展這方面的行動。隨著消費者逐漸不再使用現金,加上Facebook之類的私人公司已經表示有興趣推出自己的代幣,多國央行已經開始計劃發行自己的數字貨幣。央行俱樂部國際清算銀行1月表示,預計到2024年,全球五分之一的人口將能用上央行數字貨幣(CBDC)。

Depositphotos_211617652_l-2015_副本.jpg

China is the clear frontrunner. On February 17th it concluded the third big test of its digital currency, handing out 10m yuan ($1.5m) to 50,000 shoppers in Beijing. It has announced a joint venture with SWIFT, an interbank-messaging system used for cross-border payments. Sweden, another champion, has extended its pilot project.

中國顯然是領跑者。2月17日,它結束了對其數字貨幣的第三次大型測試,向北京的5萬名購物者發放了1000萬元數字人民幣。中國已宣布與用于跨境支付的銀行間報文系統SWIFT成立合資公司。另一個沖在前頭的國家瑞典已延長了其試點項目。

The latest big central bank to get serious about a CBDC is the EUROpean Central Bank (ECB). Its public consultation, seeking views on the desirable features of CBDCs, concluded in January, garnering over 8,000 responses. Speaking to The Economist on February 10th, Christine Lagarde, its president, said she planned to seek approval from her colleagues to begin preparing for a digital EURO. A decision is expected in April. Ms Lagarde hopes the currency will go live by 2025.

最近開始認真考慮CBDC的大型央行是歐洲央行。它對CBDC重要功能的公開征求意見于1月結束,收到了8000多條回復。2月10日,該行行長克里斯汀拉加德在接受本刊采訪時說,她計劃在征得同事們的同意下開始籌備數字歐元,預計4月將做出決定。拉加德希望這種貨幣在2025年之前投入使用。

譯文由可可原創,僅供學習交流使用,未經許可請勿轉載。

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